Unjustified Use of Force and Crowd Control Weapons

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Since 7 October 2023, Israel Police have intensified the suppression of anti-government protests in a direct extension of their policy prior to the brutal Hamas attack, adopted upon Itamar Ben-Gvir’s inauguration as Minister of National Security, which is characterized by violent measures and persistent use of unreasonable force against demonstrators.

Zulat’s Proposed Legislative Amendments to Protect Safety of Demonstrators:

  1. We propose to add a clause to the Police Act stating that a legally-approved protest will be dispersed by force proportionate to the circumstances, with the Israel Police being held criminally responsible for the violation of this requirement.
  2. We propose to add a clause to the Police Act establishing the obligation of a police officer assigned to a demonstration to wear a body camera to document the event. The collected audiovisual documentation will be kept by the Israel Police, will be available to the public, and will be forwarded to the agency investigating complaints against violent police officers.
  3. We propose to amend the Police Law to require disciplinary prosecution of a police officer who violates open-fire instructions or uses CCWs and force.
  4. We propose to add a clause to the Police Act compelling the Internal Affairs Department to open a criminal investigation in every case of a police officer causing bodily harm or affecting a person’s health.
  5. We propose to abolish the cumbersome mechanism contained in the Police Law’s First Amendment, whereby the authority to prosecute a police officer who uses force during the performance of his duty without permission and disproportionately will rest with the Attorney General or a delegated official.



Dr. Maha Sabbah Karkabi


Senior Lecturer in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. She holds a Ph.D. in Sociology from Tel Aviv University (2015), a postdoctoral fellowship at the Center for Gender Studies, SOAS, University of London (2015-2016), a postdoctoral fellowship in the Department of Sociology at Tel Aviv University (2016-2017), and a postdoctoral fellowship Ph.D. at the Humphrey Institute for Social Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (2018-2020).
Dr. Maha Karbahi’s areas of interest focus on the connection between social change, family behavior, and gender inequality in societies in the process of change and specifically in Palestinian Arab society in Israel. Her research draws attention to the study of family life and employment, using a combined “ethnic lens” and “gender lens” and paying attention to the perspective of Palestinian Arab women, a group characterized by intersections between multiple marginal locations, which over the years has remained hidden from the research eye. Dr. Karkabi-Sabah’s research is published in professional journals and chapters in scientific books that are considered pioneers in family research, work, and gender equality.


Prof. Frances Raday

Professor Emeritus in the Lieberman Chair in Labor Law, in the Faculty of Law at the Hebrew University and serves as a full professor in the College of Management’s academic track, where she also serves as chair of the graduate program and as honorary president of the Concord Center for International Law Absorption. Radai was a member of a working group of the UN Human Rights Council on discrimination against women. In addition, she is a prominent and feminist human rights activist.


Dr. Rawia Aburabia 

Faculty member of Sapir Academic College’s School of Law, received her PhD from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Her research deals with the interface between law, gender, minorities, and human rights. Has published in leading journals on the subject of the matrimonial laws pertaining to Muslim women in Israel. Her book Under the Law, Outside Justice: Polygamy, Gendered Citizenship, and Colonialism in Israeli Law is expected to be published as part of the Gender Series of Kibbutz Meuhad Publishing House.

Dr. Aburabia has extensive experience in international human rights and public law. She has worked as a jurist for the Association for Civil Right and has been invited as a specialist to address such international forums as the United Nations and the European Parliament on the subject of indigenous communities and minority rights. She has interned with Human Rights Watch in Washington DC, and has been a member of the executive board of Amnesty International. In 2018, she was selected by the magazine Globes as one of the 40 most promising young persons in Israel under the age of 40.



Ron Kessler

With over two decades of experience in the field of digital content, Ron has participated in numerous political and social campaigns. He helped run the digital activity of senior public officials, and worked in various NGOs. Ron is a fundamentally optimistic man, who believes that Israel can be changed and so can people. Lives in Tel Aviv.