Jerusalem from a Gender Perspective & a Human Rights Point of View

Marking 54 Years of Occupation and the 20th Anniversary of UN Resolution 1325

This report for the first time examines the realities of life of Jerusalem’s women, who live in a city annexed by Israel in 1967 and ruled by it ever since, from a gender and human rights perspective — and therein lies its uniqueness. 

It was born out of recognition of the immediate need to protect women and ensure the realization of their rights, without it being entirely dependent on ending the occupation and Israel’s rule, nor on normalizing or legitimizing it.

In the past few weeks Jerusalem has been up in flames. Between the decision to block the Damascus Gate Plaza during Ramadan and limit the entry of Muslim worshipers into the city, and the visible increase in the presence of Israeli troops in the Palestinian neighborhoods, Jerusalem has turned into an actual battlefield. 

Women are the first to get hurt in conflict zones, especially in times of escalation. This is one the basic premises that led the United Nations Security Council to pass Resolution 1325 in the first place, and it is what guided us throughout the process of writing of this report. Now, in light of recent developments and the turmoil in the city, it guides us even more.

Political plans proposed over the years did not take gender aspects and women’s positions into account, and were conspicuous for the absence of women’s participation. Furthermore, most of them focused on matters of security and religion, and neglected the human rights aspect. 

This report is not meant to offer a comprehensive political solution, but to address the violation of the right to national equality and the right to gender equality, as well as the tension and interdependence between the two.

The gender perspective is evident in the spotlight turned on Jerusalem’s women, their life experiences, and the issues preoccupying them. It is also manifested in our research methodology: in-depth interviews that challenge the paradigmatic patriarchal lens customarily used to look at Jerusalem and that create a space for dialogue, diversity, and an emphasis on everyday reality.

The focus on human rights is primarily seen in our effort to map out the violated rights, based on the experiences and perspectives presented in the interviews. It is even more distinct in the challenge that this report poses to the hegemonic militaristic and patriarchal definition of security that has shaped the normative discourse about Jerusalem, as well as in the introduction of alternative definitions that meet the different needs of diverse women living in the city. 

In our view, looking at the reality of life in an annexed city that is a core issue of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict from a gender perspective is the best way to mark not only 54 years of occupation, but also the 20th anniversary of Resolution 1325, in a way that takes a critical view of the resolution and its local application but also implements it. 

We believe that any comprehensive future solution will require such contemplation of all the components of Resolution 1325. Much like the different organizations working to promote equality and justice in the city, we believe that such a solution will need to recognize the two peoples’ connection to Jerusalem, as well as their national aspirations and rights.

To read the full report

JERUSALEM FROM A GENDER PERSPECTIVE AND A HUMAN RIGHTS POINT OF VIEW: Marking 54 Years of Occupation and the 20th Anniversary of UN Resolution 1325


Dr. Maha Sabbah Karkabi


Senior Lecturer in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. She holds a Ph.D. in Sociology from Tel Aviv University (2015), a postdoctoral fellowship at the Center for Gender Studies, SOAS, University of London (2015-2016), a postdoctoral fellowship in the Department of Sociology at Tel Aviv University (2016-2017), and a postdoctoral fellowship Ph.D. at the Humphrey Institute for Social Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (2018-2020).
Dr. Maha Karbahi’s areas of interest focus on the connection between social change, family behavior, and gender inequality in societies in the process of change and specifically in Palestinian Arab society in Israel. Her research draws attention to the study of family life and employment, using a combined “ethnic lens” and “gender lens” and paying attention to the perspective of Palestinian Arab women, a group characterized by intersections between multiple marginal locations, which over the years has remained hidden from the research eye. Dr. Karkabi-Sabah’s research is published in professional journals and chapters in scientific books that are considered pioneers in family research, work, and gender equality.


Prof. Frances Raday

Professor Emeritus in the Lieberman Chair in Labor Law, in the Faculty of Law at the Hebrew University and serves as a full professor in the College of Management’s academic track, where she also serves as chair of the graduate program and as honorary president of the Concord Center for International Law Absorption. Radai was a member of a working group of the UN Human Rights Council on discrimination against women. In addition, she is a prominent and feminist human rights activist.


Dr. Rawia Aburabia 

Faculty member of Sapir Academic College’s School of Law, received her PhD from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Her research deals with the interface between law, gender, minorities, and human rights. Has published in leading journals on the subject of the matrimonial laws pertaining to Muslim women in Israel. Her book Under the Law, Outside Justice: Polygamy, Gendered Citizenship, and Colonialism in Israeli Law is expected to be published as part of the Gender Series of Kibbutz Meuhad Publishing House.

Dr. Aburabia has extensive experience in international human rights and public law. She has worked as a jurist for the Association for Civil Right and has been invited as a specialist to address such international forums as the United Nations and the European Parliament on the subject of indigenous communities and minority rights. She has interned with Human Rights Watch in Washington DC, and has been a member of the executive board of Amnesty International. In 2018, she was selected by the magazine Globes as one of the 40 most promising young persons in Israel under the age of 40.



Ron Kessler

With over two decades of experience in the field of digital content, Ron has participated in numerous political and social campaigns. He helped run the digital activity of senior public officials, and worked in various NGOs. Ron is a fundamentally optimistic man, who believes that Israel can be changed and so can people. Lives in Tel Aviv.